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1. Do not remove impaled objects.
2. Do not shave hair around wounds, use clippers (scissors) or ointment to hold hair out of way; irrigate with NS at low pressure to clean, at high pressure to remove bacteria.
3. Avoid xylocaine with epinephrine on digits, ears, nose, avulsion injuries – increases infection.
4. Remove vegetative matter (thorns, splinters, cactus spines) ASAP since they soak in fluid. Do not soak! Do not show on x-ray, so get MRI.
5. Tetanus found in animal excrement, farm accidents highest risk. Administer TIG if dirty wound and unsure of vaccine status.
6. Poor wound healing in decreased tissue perfusion, poor nutrition, vascular compromise (smoker, DM, CAD, anemia), medications that slow collagen formation (steroids, phenytoin), advanced age.
7. Abrasions – pain control and clean thoroughly to prevent scarring/tattooing (stain under skin)
8. Contusions/hematomas – greater infection risk since blood is a medium for bacterial growth.
· Emergency Nurses Association. Trauma Nursing Core Curriculum, 8th ed., 2019.
· Kent, Kendra. Trauma Certified Registered Nurse Examination Review. Springer, 2017.
· Sheehy, S. Sheehy’s Manual of Emergency Care, 7th ed. Elsevier, 2013.